The student activists of SNCC took part in the Freedom Rides of 1961, with African American and white men and women participants, and sought to challenge the Jim Crow laws of the south, which the Interstate Commerce Commission had ruled to be unconstitutional. The freedom riders experienced brutal mob violence in Birmingham and were jailed, but the Congress of Racial Equality and SNCC kept sending riders to fill the jails of Birmingham.
- While equal rights existed in the abstract realm of the law under the 18th and 19th amendments, the on-the-ground reality of continued racial and gender inequality was quite different.
- As such, it shows how health and illness are deeply social and not solely determined by biology or genetics.
- These salary grades were determined by rank ordering all jobs according to their factor point scores and grouping them.
- In the past many registered nurses completed only two-year certification programs and passed a licensing exam, but the trend is now toward requiring the four-year program and the bachelor of science degree in nursing.
The ideology of separate spheres held that women and men were distinctly different creatures, with different natures and therefore suited for different activities. Masculinity was equated with breadwinning, and femininity was equated with homemaking. If so, let’s take a terrific word back, since it used to denote a person entrusted with confidential issues and information, a position of honor. I find it kind of gendered and old fashioned, though of course that’s not the case if one is Secretary of State. OTOH I never knew why “secretary/receptionist” https://accounting-services.net/ was considered an easy job and heads of states also have these titles. We have case assistants (which are what some firms call legal assistants – usually new graduates from a BA/BS program who are considering law school, although that’s not a requirement), and also paralegals. A touch off-topic, but I remember a bigwig journalist giving journalist students/rookie journalists advice that if they wanted to talk to certain people, the best way to do that was to be respectful/friendly to their secretaries.
Bate the conflicting gender-based interests between working men and women and may be held partly responsible for problems of labor divisiveness (as for example in San Jose, with management's use of all jobs rather than male-dominated jobs to construct their trend line). Unions could do more to focus attention on this issue (as occurred at Yale, where blue-collar men did come to support comparable worth; Kautzer 1989). A more accessible argument, and one more often voiced, as to why men should support comparable worth is based on men's interests in family betterment. Since nearly all men have working wives, daughters, sisters, or mothers, advocates felt it should not be difficult for working men to grasp this argument and see pay equity as being directly in their interest. But the radical potential of comparable worth—the creation of labor-feminist alliances, the mobilization of low-paid women, and the transformation of political discourse—is thwarted when control is by elite women. My case studies suggest that women professionals may suspect such patterns, which in turn contributes to ambivalence toward job integration. Expression of such ambivalence is not, of course, a popular approach to the problem of sex segregation.
Within this group, one librarian served as the president of AFSCME Local 101; the second had served as MEF president; the third had participated on the negotiating committee; and both the fourth librarian and one of the recreation professionals had served on the job evaluation committee. The assistant city manager, the affirmative action officer, jobs that have been feminized, such as teaching or secretarial work, are also referred to as and the employee relations representative . As with my argument regarding the continuing significance of class, some object to the "feminization of poverty" discourse because the term both minimizes race and class as continuing causes of poverty and treats all women as equally vulnerable (Burnham 1985; Malveaux 1985; Sparr 1984).
The women I spoke with who worked in positions with new computer-linked tasks claimed to enjoy their jobs and to have gained skills that were highly satisfying . The novelty of new tasks or the "hype" surrounding computers as the wave of the future could account for women's positive feelings toward their jobs. Yet evidence from several surveys indicates that clericals do tend to experience the new technology positively, and that automation improves their jobs despite the complaints mentioned above (Form and McMillen 1983; Gallant 1984; Hartmann, Kraut, and Tilly 1986, 127–150). The county would offer them only the first of the two equity adjustments, citing the marketplace as justification. While clericals and social workers agreed that the county's use of market arguments threatened the validity of comparable worth, the nurses were left to fend for themselves. Representatives of the three female-dominated groups, however, stated emphatically that the pay equity issue in Contra Costa County was not dead .